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Summary of the book "Metamorphoses Of Czech Youth" (1/5)

Author´s target is to provide a reader with a relatively complete view, based on thirty empirical sociological researches done, of the state and development of contemporary Czech youth, both, the generation development and the development which reflects social getting mature and changing life phases. The further target is to show mutual connections between social fundamental of a man and social reality surrounding and expanding over man´s individuality.

Tracing the influence of a society to an individual we mostly notice the relathionships between an individual and a school, an individual and a family and further bilateral relations else. Institutions, social subjects, organizations, groups and indiduals affect to an individual not separately but concurrently. Trying to break the rigidity, atomization a staticness of reflecting relation between an individual and social reality and to describe multidimensionality and complexness of dynamics of the relation between an individual and the environment the author developed a theoretic model of life and social field. This model tries to reach an individual in a dynamic ballance with life environment and in a complex of his/her social connections. He names the totality of being related to a factual individual a life field that is created by three components: biological, mental and social fields.

Life field. An environment related to a factual individual is his/her life field. It contents of three components: biological, mental and social fields. They create dialectical unity of conditions for total development af a personality and for his/her way of life.

Biological field includes anything what may affect to man´s senses, what a man percepts by his/her prior signal systém and he/she is in material and enrgetic interaction with. Biological field is timespacely limited, involves a part of surronding world only that corresponding to the biological system of an individual.

Mental field is an ensemble of stimuli affecting to man´s psychic and stimulating development of his/her rational abilities and his/her mental operations working.

Social field is structured social reality:

  1. of individuals and groups the subject is in some relation to,
  2. of individuals and groups unilateral or bilateral actions exist between,
  3. of social processes an individual takes part in actively or passively (he/she is a subject or an object of those processes),
  4. of material and spiritual products expressing values, norms, ideas, views, attitudes and knowledge of the society. It is a total sociocultural heritage of the society,
  5. of social institutions and organizations.

Social fields are partially the same - they have general features, partially unique. The tissue of the life field and mostly of the social one is created by: civilization, socially economic formation, nation, ethnic, belonging to a social class - stratification, location, family, company, team, club, friends, classfellows, working team, neighbour community etc. On a more general dimension of the social field being common for a big number of individuals, less general social dimensions are layed, colaterally or step by step, being common for a lower number of individuals. The social field of an individual makes individula itself by that process, it becomes unique and specific for a factual individual. Individualizing the social field is a source for individualizing an individual.

General dimension of the social field is firstly a source for socialization and creating a modal social personality. Along falling down generalness of elements in the social field their importance for individual´s individualization grows. Personality and his/her field create dialectic unity. Changes in one have tendency to change another. A change of social field affects to process of social getting mature and to social personality of an individual. A change of personality has tendency to project itself into a change of the social field. On the other hand, a social field with the same parameters as individual´s personality has got shows tendency to petrify the given state of personality. An individual tends to harmonization of relations between his/her social field and his/her personality. There are two spontaneous precesses serving to it: an individual replaces elements being contrary to his/her personality from his/her social field, otherwise the second mechanism works. Attitudes, values and nerms of an individual change to correspond his/her ballance with the sate of his/her social field or its some significant element.

Social field is structured complicatelly along many criteria, we can take it for a range of intersecting social dimenzions or levels. An individual which the social field is related to is a point of intersection of those dimensions. An individual and his/her social field are strongly mutually connected and one states about another. In spite of that the connection between an individual and the social field cannot be taken for something rigid and mechanistic.

If a scope of tolerance is crossed, changes of both the social field and individual´s personality successively occur leading to their mutual harmonization. This process is lasting and characterizing the relation between an individual and his/her social field. Dynamism of the relation mentioned is a subject of frequent changes with reference to life phase and individual´s situation, individual personality and society development. When social changes are quicker and more significant, then the social field of classes, strats, goups and individuals changes more radically and the relation between an idividual and the field is more dynamic. Social field is dynamic, all its elements develope, change, new ones income to individual´s social field, another doom or the individual replaces them from his/her social field.

An individual dynamizes elements of his/her social field in the measure of his/her taking part in them - in direct correlation to intensity of his/her acting and position and in indirect correlation to the number of individuals sharing the given element. In a feedback, the element takes part in forming structuring and motivating an individual to action. An individual, his/her actions, thinking, attitudes, value orientation are a statement about the state of his/her social field and separated elements of the social field in the measure corresponding to their position occupied in the social field.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

A human being does not become a man by his/her birth only, by the simple fact of biological existence, but he/she becomes a man by acquiring social substance. Firstly, an individual grows prenatally to his/her basic shape, his/her development is extremely dynamic after the birth, then psychical and mental development add being accompanied by social one. Those components of individual´s development have different dynamics and culmination periods. An indiviual goes through social development since the early childhood, however, that process runs under different conditions during juvenile period. Biological process aprooches ti its end, mental maturity gradually culminates and social changes occur under circumstances when an individual, in a range of his/her social roles, stops to be an object af social care and becoms a social subject. I use the concept social getting mature for that process of changing social personality. The process of social getting mature in its most general level means changing an individual from mostly a social object to a social subject. That process is accompanied by changes of social position and consequent ensemble of occupied roles. Those social changes altogether with biological and psychical getting mature create stimuli and pressure to social getting mature in solid items coneected with a given social position and social roles.

Social getting mature is a process of development changes in an individual running under pressure of changing social position and roles and leading to gradual changing an object of social care to become a social subject. Social getting mature runs on two basic levels, in area of consciousness and on the level of acquiring social competence. Changes of social behaviour from elementary acts to style of living are consequences to development changes in consciousness and in social competence.

Social getting mature helps to establish basic motivation structures, value orientation and life targets. Social roles are taken over and acquired, actions commence to be in the frame of social norms being differentiated based on social roles. Social getting mature means also understanding and active acquiring social mechanisms. Social mechanisms are chains and accumulations of mutually connected elementary acts of social behaviour an assumed social effect is the consequence of. During the process of getting mature, the youth also acquires social patterns and stereotypes. Certain stereotypes and behaviour patterns sequently established during life of society. They limitate spontainity and sujectivity of a man but, on the other hand, they enable him/her (or a group) to understand content and forms of that behaviour. In the process of getting mature, the youth losts gradually spontaneity and individualness of its social expressions and more and more part of its behaviour occur under the pressure of norms, social patterns and stereotypes and social mechanisms utilization.

In the process of social getting mature, an individual uniquely, by his/her own speceific way, elects values, ideas, behaviour patterns , social norms and social attitudes from the social field - and therefore from the society. He/she establishes creatively based on them a system valid for his/her thinking and behaviour. Paralelly, he/she acquires knowledge and skills needed in social interaction.

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