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Summary of the book "Metamorphoses Of Czech Youth" (2/5)

Empirical data reached by reseraches done from 1982 to 1997 state about value orientation of youth and aits development. There is a value index used for comparation contructed as a weighed arithmetic average.

Preferences to individual value in the ensemble of youth between 15 and 30 were as follows. The first position of value hierarchy of youth was occupied by the value health - the index 4,83. The second position is the value peace - the index 4,59. The third position of the value que was occupied by love (4,57). The fourth one with the index 4,55 was occupied by life partner. On the fifth position is the value connnected worldwide and at us, too, with youth - life environment. Frienship is on the sixth position with the index 4,44. Th value family, children with the index 4,43, however, with higher significant declination, therefore, with lower homogenity of the set, lays on the seventh position. The value freedom is on the eighth position of the value scale (4,41). Truth, understanding is on the ninth position with the index 4,18. 49% young people give the most importance expressed by the degree five to the truth. Interesting work is the value on the tenth position with the index 4,13. There is more significant differentiation at that value. Interesting work is of average or slightly over average importance for more than a half of young people. The value democracy on the eleventh position seems to be projecting freedom into area of social system and mechanisms of its working. Democracy has got the index 4,04. The value salary on the twelfth position has got the index 4,02. Developing personality on the thirteenth position has got the index 3,96. The index 3,95 states the position of the value professional success at youth. This index gives that value the fourteenth position on the value scale. The index 3,76 gives the value education the fifteenth position on the youth value scale. Education belongs to values with significant inside structure. It has significant instrumental, purpose component when education is an instrument for gaining "something", e.g. qualification for a certain employment, social prestige and status, money etc. Paralely, it is a target value when the process of education itself is a target or the target is to reach some level of education, to be educated. The order of the value to be useful for other people on the sixteenth position is determinated by the index 3,76. The value "to be useful for other people" among young people has the strongest position of all values referred to social dimension. Meeting own needs and hobbies with the index 3,73 occupies the seventeeth position. Property on the eighteenth position has got the index 3,54. Importance of property is differentiated very much between youth. Except the first, the lowest degree, all degrees are strongly occupied. This value is specific in the sense that is makes an intersection through orientations of youth. The high degree of the value correlates with general material and egocentric orientation of an individual. Social prestige on the nineteenth position has got the index 2,83. The low order - the twentieth - is occupied by the value private business (2,83). Further value connected with society - work for public utility - is on the twenty-first position with the index 2,41. Political commitment wit the index 1,52 is on the last position of the value scale of youth. The low siginificant declination shows that the low importance of the value is generally percepted by youth.

Preferences of separated values are not chance without mutual connections between separated values. Value systems of individuals, groups generations are intrinsicly consistent, they have their own logic. Preferences of values state more general value orientations. That reality of higher order was constated based on factor analysis which shew existence of seven value orientations at youth completed differentially by partial individual values.

Values healthy life environment, peace, health in their whole and mutual connections create global value orientation stating interests of whole humankind. Global orientation is on the first position at youth of age both 15-30 (index 4,65) and 15-18. All factors show this coincidence of value orientation order at the youngest age group and the whole of young generation. at The factor on the second position saturates value life partner, family and children, love and it sates reproduction value orientation. It expresses humankind needs to keep its continuation by biological reproduction. Values hobbies and needs, frienship, love create hedonic orientation of a man that is on the third position (4,14). Negative corelation between the factor and values family, children and political commitment states about content of that orientation. Hedonic orientation as an alternative one to orientations forward to family, society, property possession and profession. The factor on the fourth position (3,94) is created by values education, developing own personality, interesting work, professional success. It states professionally developing value orientation. Liberal factor expresses liberal value orientation. This synthetic mark is created by valuess freedom, democracy, private business. The factor si saturated by the strongest way by the value freedom that states by the most general way the substance of liberal value orientation. That orientation is on the fifth position (3,65). Egoistically materialistic value orientation saturated by values property, salary, furher earnings, social prestige, private business, professional success is on the sixth position (3,37). The factor is saterated mostly by the value property, otherwise, salary and further earnings and a block consequence stating ways for getting rich. The last position is occupied by the factor created by values work for public utility, political commitment, social prestige, to be useful for other people. This factor expresses social value orientation which leads an individual to extend over his/her/self, to interactions and relations to other individuals, to primary social groups and to human communities.

The difference in the value orientation of age groups has two basic causes. On one hand, they are differences depended on social getting mature connected with the given life phase. An individual changes his/her accent to separated values based on his/her level of mental maturity and on his/her steps into further life phase bounded with another social status and roles. We can recognize the growth of importance of a value along age at values: family, to be useful for other people, political commitment, health and peace. Those values grow along age and they have stronger position in value systems of adult population.

On the other hand, love, frienship, hobbies and needs, business, freedom but also property being compared with adult population characterize value system of youth. Since fifteen, the value frienship falls down constantly. Importance of love and life partner is the highest for young people of age 19-23 and then, its importance falls down. The value family grows till age cathegory 31-45 and then, it falls down.

The most age dependent value orientaion are social and hedonic ones. Development of both is contradictory. Whilst the hedonic orientation falls down along age, social one grows.

The second cause of developing value orientations is of generation character. An individual and a generation group don´t change value preferences but they leave a group of youth for further age and social groups. The number of respondents of egoistically materialistic orientation which are in the mostly exposed fifth degree fell down nearly to a half during ten years since 1993 and, in opposite, the number of individuals in the second degree of the scale grew twice. However, since 1993, egoistically materialistic orientation gets more wide at young generation. It is getting confirmed that as far as professionally developing orientation is concerned, since 1992, the most effective at young generation was orientation of professionally developing character. Except the year 1992, the number of young people with the highest preference of professinally developing orientation is stabilized. Since eightieth years, the value family at youth underwent big changes. In 1992, when that value orientation was on its top, 75% young people were situated in the highest preference degree by their reproduction orientation. Falling dependencies d reproduction values - down is even more charcteristic for generation development. Firstly, dependencies were diminuished between values "love" and "family and children", then, between values "love" and "life partner".

We can recognize oscillations of preference to global orientation. Its preference was stabilized in the beginning of ninetieth years but suddenly, the preference - its emergency - fell down extremely in the year 1993. The percentage of young people having the global orientation on the highest degree fell down from 1991 to 1993 from 88% to 76%, i.e. of 12%. The number of people which gives the highest importance to liberal orientation fell down significantly. From 1991 to 1993 the number of respondents of the highest fifth degree fell from thirty to twenty per cent. From 1993 to 1996, importance of liberal orientation for young generation fell down else. Six times less young people than in 1984 gave the social orientation the highest degree in 1993, the degree 4 four times less people. Besides falling down of importance of social dimension for whole young generation, there is important that the strat of young people giving the social dimension of life the highest evaluation disappeared. In 1993, the index of hedonic orientationfell down, however, in that year, the most of young people had the highest degree of the scale, compared with 1991 they were double. Also separated values change along generations. A decrease of preferencies occurs at democracy, freedom, business, life environment, interesting work and utilization for others.

R. Inglehart thinks that there is a quiet revolution appearing in developed countries, a replacement of material values by postmaterial ones. There is an opposite movement in the Czech society - material values become more significant.

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